American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC.

Bosanquet K, Bailey D, Gilbody S, Harden M, Manea L, Nutbrown S, McMillan D. Diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions for the identification of depression: a diagnostic meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2015 Dec 9; 5(12):e008913. PubMed PDF

Darwin Z, McGowan L, Edozien LC. Identification of women at risk of depression in pregnancy: using women's accounts to understand the poor specificity of the Whooley and Arroll case finding questions in clinical practice. Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2016 Feb; 19(1):41-9. PubMed PDF

Elderon L, Smolderen KG, Na B, Whooley MA. Accuracy and prognostic value of American Heart Association: recommended depression screening in patients with coronary heart disease: data from the Heart and Soul Study. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 2011 Sep; 4(5):533-40. PubMed PDF

Gilbody S, Richards D, Brealey S, Hewitt C. Screening for depression in medical settings with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): a diagnostic meta-analysis. J General Internal Medicine. 2007 Nov; 22(11):1596–602. PubMed PDF

Howard, LM, Ryan EG, Trevillion K, Anderson F, Bick D, Bye A, Byford S, O'Connor S, Sands P, Demilew J, Milgrom J, Pickles A. Accuracy of the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in identifying depression and other mental disorders in early pregnancy. British J of Psychiatry. 2018 Jan; 212:50-56. PubMed PDF

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The Patient Health Questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Medical Care. 2003 Nov; 41(11):1284-1292. PubMed PDF

Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J General Internal Medicine. 2001 Sep; 16:606-13. PubMed PDF

Littlewood E, Ali S, Ansell P, Dyson L, Gascoyne S, Hewitt C, Keding A, Mann R, McMillan D, Morgan D, Swan K, Waterhouse B, Gilbody S, BaBY PaNDA study team. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study. BMJ Open. 2016 Jun 13; 6(6). PubMed PDF

Littlewood E, Ali S, Dyson L, Keding A, Ansell P, Bailey D, Bates D, Baxter C, Beresford-Dent J, Clarke A, Gascoyne S, Gray C, Hackney L, Hewitt C, Hutchinson D, Jefferson L, Mann R, Marshall D, McMillan D, North A, Nutbrown S, Peckham E, Pervin J, Richardson Z, Swan K, Taylor H, Waterhouse B, Wills L, Woodhouse R, Gilbody S. Identifying perinatal depression with case-finding instruments: a mixed-methods study (BaBY PaNDA – Born and Bred in Yorkshire PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy). NIHR Journals Library. 2018 Feb. PubMed PDF

Manea L, Gilbody S, Hewitt C, North A, Plummer F, Richardson R, Thombs BD, Williams BW, McMillan D. Identifying depression with the PHQ-2: a diagnostic meta-analysis. J of Affective Disorders. 2016 Oct; 203:382-395. PubMed PDF

Mann R, Adamson J, Gilbody SM. Diagnostic accuracy of case-finding questions to identify perinatal depression. Canadian Medical Association J​. 2012 May 15; 184(8). PubMed PDF

Marsay C, Manderson L, Subramaney U. Validation of the Whooley questions for antenatal depression and anxiety among low-income women in urban South Africa. South African J of Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 11; 1-7. PubMed PDF

McGlone C, Hollins Martin CJ, Furber C. Midwives’ experiences of asking the Whooley questions to assess current mental health: a qualitative interpretive study. J of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 2016 Jun 23; 34(4):383-393. PDF

McManus D, Pipkin SS, Whooley MA. Screening for depression in patients with coronary heart disease (data from the Heart and Soul Study). The American J of Cardiology​. 2005 Oct; 96(8):1076-1081. PubMed PDF

Mulrow CD, Williams J, Gerety MB, Ramirez G, Montiel OM, Kerber C. Case-finding instruments for depression in primary care settings. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1995 Jun 15; 122:913-21. PubMed PDF

Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K, Linzer M, deGruy III FV, Hahn SR, Brody D, Johnson JG. Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care: the PRIME-MD 1000 study. JAMA: The J of the American Medical Association. 1994 Dec 14; 272:1749-56. PubMed PDF

Thombs BD, Ziegelstein RC, Whooley MA. Optimizing detection of major depression among patients with coronary artery disease using the patient health questionnaire: data from the Heart and Soul Study. J of General Internal Medicine. 2008 Dec; 23(12):2014-2017. PubMed PDF

van Heyningen T, Honikman S, Tomlinson M, Field S, Myer L. Comparison of mental health screening tools for detecting antenatal depression and anxiety disorders in South African women. PLOS One. 2018 Apr 18; 13(4). PubMed PDF

Wang EY, Meyer C, Graham GD, Whooley MA. Evaluating screening tests for depression in post-stroke older adults. J of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology. 2018 May; 31(3):129-135. PubMed PDF

Whooley MA, Avins AL, Miranda J, Browner WS. Case-finding instruments for depression: two questions are as good as many. J of General Internal Medicine. 1997 Jul; 12(7):439-45. PubMed PDF

Whooley MA. Screening for depression—a tale of two questions. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2016 Apr; 176(4):436-437. PubMed PDF

Whooley MA. Diagnosis and treatment of depression in adults with comorbid medical conditions: a 52-year-old man with depression. JAMA: The J of the American Medical Association. 2012 May 2; 307(17):1848-1857. PubMed PDF

Whooley MA, Simon GE. Managing depression in medical outpatients. The New England J of Medicine​. 2000 Dec 28; 343(26):1942-1950. PubMed PDF