The purpose of this website is to provide information about use of the Whooley Questions as a screening tool for major depressive disorder.



  • A negative test essentially rules out major depressive disorder (95% sensitivity).
  • A positive test identifies patients who may benefit from further evaluation (65% specificity).
  • The Whooley Questions are in the public domain and may be used without permission.
  • Reference: Whooley MA, Avins AL, Miranda J, Browner WS. Case-finding instruments for depression: two questions are as good as many. J Gen Int Med. 1997 Jul; 12(7):439-45. PubMed PDF




   Mary A. Whooley, MD FACP FAHA FACC
   Professor of Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics
   University of California, San Francisco
   Director, Center for Healthcare Improvement and Medical Effectiveness
   4150 Clement Street (111A1) San Francisco, CA 94121